The International and Political Journal <p><strong>About the Journal</strong></p> <p><strong>The International and Political Journal issued by the College of Political Science / Mustansiriyah University. It is a periodic (Quarterly) specialized journal. It receives the outputs of specialized researchers that deal with contemporary political problems, issues and realities, as well as related topics. These researches are subject to scientific evaluation by specialized researchers according to Specific publishing rules in which the principles of scientific research are taken into account, and the journal’s research and contents are subject to linguistic evaluation by the aforementioned linguistic experts, and the journal’s research is reviewed before issuing each issue by the general supervisor, the editorial board, and the advisory board that consists of Iraqi and Arab specialist professors And foreigners, and the board also receives any comments from readers and specialists, and the editorial board of the journal aspires to elevate it to the ranks of prestigious scientific academic journals, which take into account the quality standards in force globally.</strong></p> <p><strong>Scientific papers are published in the following fields:</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Political systems</strong></li> <li><strong>Political thought</strong></li> <li><strong>Relations and international studies</strong></li> <li><strong>Local governments and administration</strong></li> <li><strong>Managing crises, conflicts and international peace</strong></li> <li><strong>All social science disciplines with a political dimension</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>The Journal of Political and International is an open access journal, published under the license:</strong></p> <p><strong>(<a title="a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license</a>).</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Al-Mustansiriya University</strong></p> <p><strong>Institution: College of Political Science</strong></p> <p><strong>Address: Iraq - Baghdad / Bab al-Mu'adham (<a href="">View in Map</a>)</strong></p> <p><strong>Mustansiriyah University - College of Political Science</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: </strong></p> <p><strong>International coding: 8984-1991</strong></p> <p><strong>International electronic coding: 8563-2789</strong></p> <p><strong>Digital Object Port: DOI: 10.31272/IPJ</strong></p> en-US <p><strong>Journal Policies</strong><br />All articles published in the International and Political Journal are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. This means that the Authors can:</p> <p>The journal allows reuse and remixing of content in accordance with a Creative Commons license.<br />Copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format.<br />Policy of publishing in The International and Political Journal</p> <p>The journal is committed to the ethics of scientific publishing, and according to the publication ethics report of the journal.<br />The decision to publish is based on the value of the scientific research, to what extent it meets the conditions of publication approved, the declared policy of the journal, and its specialty.<br />It is based on the principles of the scientific honesty, and originality of research submitted for publication. It deals with the names of reviewers and their reports with great confidentiality.<br />The opinions published in the journal reflect the views of the authors, and not necessarily reflect the opinion of the editorial board.<br />The journal does not adhere to the publication of whatever comes to it. The time and place of publication are subject to technical considerations adopted in the editorial plan of the journal.<br />The journal does not abide to return the research papers to their owners whether accepted for publication or not.<br />The researcher is to be provided with the acceptance of publication within about 24 WEEKS. As for publication, the editorial board reserves its right in priority of publishing. The arrangement of the research papers in the same issue is subject to technical standards.<br />Diversify of publishing papers from solid universities and scientific centers from inside and outside Iraq is preferable.<br />The journal maintains hard copies and electronic archive of the published issues in addition to the publication of the research papers.<br />The journal also publishes the issues electronically through the website of the journal, and the official website of the Iraqi academic journals, and makes it possible to download. Thus, documenting the intellectual property of the research papers and publishing them internationally is achieved.<br />Terms of publication may be modified when necessary with no previous notice.<br />The researcher obtains a copy of his research paper. If he wishes to buy acopy of the journal, the volume costs ID 10000 from inside Iraq and $8from the outside.<br />The Editorial Board considers that the researcher who submits his research paper for publication in the journal has already read the terms and conditions of publication and agreed on them.<br />The journal publishes the research papers of the postgraduate students in special issues for this purpose.</p> <p><strong> Stages of editing and publishing:</strong></p> <p>The researcher undertakes that his research has never been published before, and has not been submitted for publication to other sides until the end of the evaluation procedures and the acceptance of publication in the journal.<br />The research papers submitted for publication are to subjected for preliminary examination by the editorial board to determine their suitability for the journal specialization, its policy and the safety of scientific research procedures, and then to indicate its eligibility for scientific evaluation. The editorial board may apologize for accepting the research all together or require the researcher to amend it in accordance with the journal policy before sending it to editors.<br />After conducting the scientific evaluation, the research paper returns back to the researcher to make the required amendments within a maximum of two weeks.<br />A copy of the final research paper is to be submitted to the secretariat of the journal a hard copy and a soft copy on a CD, in both Word and PDF format. The researcher is fully responsible for the typing and linguistic mistakes after submitting the full research paper on a CD.</p> <p><strong> Plagiarism checker</strong></p> <p> All research papers are subjected to Turnitin program to uncover plagiarism before being sent to scientific evaluation. The researcher undertakes a written pledge to take the legal and moral responsibility, in the event of the emergence of plagiarism or taking from the efforts of other researchers, without a reference to them. The journal uses appropriate anti-plagiarism software, such as Turnitin to check for plagiarism.</p> <p><strong>Dealing with Allegations of Research Misconduct</strong></p> <p>The Journal shall take reasonable and serious steps to identify and prevent the publication of papers where research misconduct has occurred, including plagiarism, citation manipulation, and data falsification/fabrication.</p> <p><strong> Scientific Evaluation:</strong></p> <p> Scientific evaluation strengthens the research paper submitted to the journal and helps to take the appropriate decision by the editorial board to publish it. It also benefits the researchers to improve and correct their research papers.</p> <p>The research paper is sent to three evaluators in the same specialty to evaluate</p> [email protected] (أ.د. فلاح خلف كاظم) [email protected] (م.م. زيدون لطيف علي) Thu, 15 Feb 2024 13:56:14 +0000 OJS 60 The International and Political Journal <p>The Russian-Ukrainian war was not a momentary and instantaneous result, but rather goes back to historical roots and military, economic, and political causes and motives. Relations that historically extend over hundreds of years have witnessed many tensions and lulls at different points in time. Perhaps the most prominent stages of lulls are the relations that existed during the days of the Cold War between the United States and the Union. The Soviet Union had on its territory the largest nuclear arsenal of the Soviet Union when it was part of it. However, this calm in relations did not last long. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine quickly sought to join NATO. This was considered by Russia to be a return to the containment policy pursued by the United States during that period, and it repeatedly stated that Ukrainian joining NATO represented a threat to its vital and national security.<br>The war affected the reality of the world in general and Europe in particular. The world today operates in a very interconnected manner. Russia and Ukraine, the largest food exporters in the world, were negatively affected by the war. Which led to the European decision being politically dispersed, militarily tense, and economically damaged.<br>As a result, the above-mentioned reasons led to war, and since war often affects the security, safety, and interests of surrounding and even distant regions; The positions of countries regarding the war varied as a result of different points of view, especially between those that insinuate Russia’s right to maintain its security from NATO and the United States’ encirclement of it. These countries often seek in one way or another to change the form of the existing international order, such as China, and on the other hand, those countries Which tends to maintain the existing international system in its current form, such as the United States of America. Moreover, the positions of some countries have fluctuated as a result of their exposure to economic pressure due to their close economic relations with Russia on the one hand, and political pressure from the United States on the other hand.</p> Prof.Dr. Azeez Jabur shayal, Mustafa Jafaar Safih Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The International and Political Journal <p>Societal security is regarded as a basic need for human society through which the stability, progress and prosperity of the nation is measured. It is the guarantor of the safety of individuals and groups from various internal and external dangers, based on the protection of the three pillars: the individual, the family, and society.</p> <p>For decades, Iraq has witnessed the phenomenon of political instability, represented by its entry into several wars, starting with the 1948 war, leading up to the American war on Iraq in 2003. Then, those wars were followed by an era in which corruption and terrorism spread, and this, in turn, led to the fragmentation of the national will and the division of Iraqi public opinion regarding many regional and international issues and positions, as well as the collapse of political infrastructure and the emergence of many challenges that threaten Iraqi societal security and civil peace.</p> Assistant Prof. Dr. Donia Jwad Mutleq Copyright (c) 2023 Thu, 15 Feb 2024 00:00:00 +0000