https://ipj.uomustansiriyah.edu.iq/index.php/political/issue/feed The International and Political Journal 2024-02-15T14:11:14+00:00 أ.د. فلاح خلف كاظم [email protected] Open Journal Systems <p><strong>About the Journal</strong></p> <p><strong>The International and Political Journal issued by the College of Political Science / Mustansiriyah University. It is a periodic (Quarterly) specialized journal. It receives the outputs of specialized researchers that deal with contemporary political problems, issues and realities, as well as related topics. These researches are subject to scientific evaluation by specialized researchers according to Specific publishing rules in which the principles of scientific research are taken into account, and the journal’s research and contents are subject to linguistic evaluation by the aforementioned linguistic experts, and the journal’s research is reviewed before issuing each issue by the general supervisor, the editorial board, and the advisory board that consists of Iraqi and Arab specialist professors And foreigners, and the board also receives any comments from readers and specialists, and the editorial board of the journal aspires to elevate it to the ranks of prestigious scientific academic journals, which take into account the quality standards in force globally.</strong></p> <p><strong>Scientific papers are published in the following fields:</strong></p> <ul> <li><strong>Political systems</strong></li> <li><strong>Political thought</strong></li> <li><strong>Relations and international studies</strong></li> <li><strong>Local governments and administration</strong></li> <li><strong>Managing crises, conflicts and international peace</strong></li> <li><strong>All social science disciplines with a political dimension</strong></li> </ul> <p><strong>The Journal of Political and International is an open access journal, published under the license:</strong></p> <p><strong>(<a title="a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license</a>).</strong></p> <p><strong>Publisher: Al-Mustansiriya University</strong></p> <p><strong>Institution: College of Political Science</strong></p> <p><strong>Address: Iraq - Baghdad / Bab al-Mu'adham (<a href="https://goo.gl/maps/tu5QzY7gCmGDfPFNA">View in Map</a>)</strong></p> <p><strong>Mustansiriyah University - College of Political Science</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: </strong></p> <p><strong>International coding: 8984-1991</strong></p> <p><strong>International electronic coding: 8563-2789</strong></p> <p><strong>Digital Object Port: DOI: 10.31272/IPJ</strong></p> https://ipj.uomustansiriyah.edu.iq/index.php/political/article/view/277 The International and Political Journal 2024-02-15T13:42:46+00:00 Prof.Dr. Azeez Jabur shayal [email protected] Mustafa Jafaar Safih [email protected] <p>The Russian-Ukrainian war was not a momentary and instantaneous result, but rather goes back to historical roots and military, economic, and political causes and motives. Relations that historically extend over hundreds of years have witnessed many tensions and lulls at different points in time. Perhaps the most prominent stages of lulls are the relations that existed during the days of the Cold War between the United States and the Union. The Soviet Union had on its territory the largest nuclear arsenal of the Soviet Union when it was part of it. However, this calm in relations did not last long. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine quickly sought to join NATO. This was considered by Russia to be a return to the containment policy pursued by the United States during that period, and it repeatedly stated that Ukrainian joining NATO represented a threat to its vital and national security.<br>The war affected the reality of the world in general and Europe in particular. The world today operates in a very interconnected manner. Russia and Ukraine, the largest food exporters in the world, were negatively affected by the war. Which led to the European decision being politically dispersed, militarily tense, and economically damaged.<br>As a result, the above-mentioned reasons led to war, and since war often affects the security, safety, and interests of surrounding and even distant regions; The positions of countries regarding the war varied as a result of different points of view, especially between those that insinuate Russia’s right to maintain its security from NATO and the United States’ encirclement of it. These countries often seek in one way or another to change the form of the existing international order, such as China, and on the other hand, those countries Which tends to maintain the existing international system in its current form, such as the United States of America. Moreover, the positions of some countries have fluctuated as a result of their exposure to economic pressure due to their close economic relations with Russia on the one hand, and political pressure from the United States on the other hand.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 https://ipj.uomustansiriyah.edu.iq/index.php/political/article/view/278 The International and Political Journal 2024-02-15T14:11:14+00:00 Assistant Prof. Dr. Donia Jwad Mutleq <p>Societal security is regarded as a basic need for human society through which the stability, progress and prosperity of the nation is measured. It is the guarantor of the safety of individuals and groups from various internal and external dangers, based on the protection of the three pillars: the individual, the family, and society.</p> <p>For decades, Iraq has witnessed the phenomenon of political instability, represented by its entry into several wars, starting with the 1948 war, leading up to the American war on Iraq in 2003. Then, those wars were followed by an era in which corruption and terrorism spread, and this, in turn, led to the fragmentation of the national will and the division of Iraqi public opinion regarding many regional and international issues and positions, as well as the collapse of political infrastructure and the emergence of many challenges that threaten Iraqi societal security and civil peace.</p> 2024-02-15T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023